A facsimile is an authorized reproduction of a manual signature, book, manuscript, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source.
Exemplars of such can be found as of 16th century AD.
Record type is a family of typefaces designed to allow medieval manuscripts (specifically those from England) to be published as near-facsimiles of the originals. The typefaces include many special characters intended to replicate the various scribal abbreviations and other unusual glyphs typically found in such manuscripts.
Exemplars of such can be found as of the 18th century AD.
The above differ from other forms of reproduction, as Facsimiles not only require authorization from the source owner, to accurately reproduce in scale, color, condition, and other material qualities - But that in an accountable manner.
For books and manuscripts, this also entails a complete copy of all pages; hence, an incomplete copy is categorized as a "partial facsimile".
When original sources are unattainable for precautionary reasons - Facsimiles are used by scholars for research, museums and archives for preservation and conservation.
Licensed Facsimiles can be made available commercially, often accompanied by a volume of commentary. They may also be produced in limited editions under contractural authorization. These can be saved electronically, engraving, imprinting, stamping - And reproduced by means of lithography, aquatint, philograph (tracing an original through a transparent plane), photostat, hectograph, or modern era photographic techniques. Reproductions of three-dimensional objects are referred to as replicas, and are not Facsimiles.
Facsimile signatures by government personnel and/or officials, as an authorized officer’s facsimile signature, shall create a valid and binding obligation of the party executing (or on whose behalf such signature is executed) with the same force and effect as if such signature were an original thereof.